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Kurzweil AI - 1 Únor, 2024 - 07:00

Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Ray Kurzweil responds to John Brockman’s “The Edge” Annual Question of 2007

Kurzweil AI - 1 Únor, 2024 - 07:00
Ray Kurzweil responds to John Brockman's The Edge Annual Question - 2007: WHAT ARE YOU OPTIMISTIC ABOUT? WHY?
Kategorie: Transhumanismus

A singularity q + a.

Kurzweil AI - 1 Únor, 2024 - 07:00
year: 2005 Questions and Answers So what is the Singularity? Within a quarter century, nonbiological intelligence will match the range and subtlety of human intelligence. It will then soar past it because of the continuing acceleration of information-based technologies, as well as the ability of machines to instantly share their knowledge. Intelligent nanorobots will be […]
Kategorie: Transhumanismus

The First 3D Printer to Use Molten Metal in Space Is Headed to the ISS This Week

Singularity HUB - 31 Leden, 2024 - 23:11

The Apollo 13 moon mission didn’t go as planned. After an explosion blew off part of the spacecraft, the astronauts spent a harrowing few days trying to get home. At one point, to keep the air breathable, the crew had to cobble together a converter for ill-fitting CO2 scrubbers with duct tape, space suit parts, and pages from a mission manual.

They didn’t make it to the moon, but Apollo 13 was a master class in hacking. It was also a grim reminder of just how alone astronauts are from the moment their spacecraft lifts off. There are no hardware stores in space (yet). So what fancy new tools will the next generation of space hackers use? The first 3D printer to make plastic parts arrived at the ISS a decade ago. This week, astronauts will take delivery of the first metal 3D printer. The machine should arrive at the ISS Thursday as part of the Cygnus NG-20 resupply mission.

The first 3D printer to print metal in space, pictured here, is headed to the ISS. Image Credit: ESA

Built by an Airbus-led team, the printer is about the size of a washing machine—small for metal 3D printers but big for space exploration—and uses high-powered lasers to liquefy metal alloys at temperatures of over 1,200 degrees Celsius (2,192 degrees Fahrenheit). Molten metal is deposited in layers to steadily build small (but hopefully useful) objects, like spare parts or tools.

Astronauts will install the 3D printer in the Columbus Laboratory on the ISS, where the team will conduct four test prints. They then plan to bring these objects home and compare their strength and integrity to prints completed under Earth gravity. They also hope the experiment demonstrates the process—which involves much higher temperatures than prior 3D printers and harmful fumes—is safe.

“The metal 3D printer will bring new on-orbit manufacturing capabilities, including the possibility to produce load-bearing structural parts that are more resilient than a plastic equivalent,” Gwenaëlle Aridon, a lead engineer at Airbus said in a press release. “Astronauts will be able to directly manufacture tools such as wrenches or mounting interfaces that could connect several parts together. The flexibility and rapid availability of 3D printing will greatly improve astronauts’ autonomy.”

One of four test prints planned for the ISS mission. Image Credit: Airbus Space and Defence SAS

Taking nearly two days per print job, the machine is hardly a speed demon, and the printed objects will be rough around the edges. Following the first demonstration of partial-gravity 3D printing on the ISS, the development of technologies suitable for orbital manufacturing has been slow. But as the ISS nears the end of its life and private space station and other infrastructure projects ramp up, the technology could find more uses.

The need to manufacture items on-demand will only grow the further we travel from home and the longer we stay there. The ISS is relatively nearby—a mere 200 miles overhead—but astronauts exploring and building a more permanent presence on the moon or Mars will need to repair and replace anything that breaks on their mission.

Ambitiously, and even further out, metal 3D printing could contribute to ESA’s vision of a “circular space economy,” in which material from old satellites, spent rocket stages, and other infrastructure is recycled into new structures, tools, and parts as needed.

Duct tape will no doubt always have a place in every space hacker’s box of tools—but a few 3D printers to whip up plastic and metal parts on the fly certainly won’t hurt the cause.

Image Credit: NASA

Kategorie: Transhumanismus

How Much Life Has Ever Existed on Earth, and How Much Ever Will?

Singularity HUB - 30 Leden, 2024 - 21:36

All organisms are made of living cells. While it is difficult to pinpoint exactly when the first cells came to exist, geologists’ best estimates suggest at least as early as 3.8 billion years ago. But how much life has inhabited this planet since the first cell on Earth? And how much life will ever exist on Earth?

In our new study, published in Current Biology, my colleagues from the Weizmann Institute of Science and Smith College and I took aim at these big questions.

Carbon on Earth

Every year, about 200 billion tons of carbon is taken up through what is known as primary production. During primary production, inorganic carbon—such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and bicarbonate in the ocean—is used for energy and to build the organic molecules life needs.

Today, the most notable contributor to this effort is oxygenic photosynthesis, where sunlight and water are key ingredients. However, deciphering past rates of primary production has been a challenging task. In lieu of a time machine, scientists like myself rely on clues left in ancient sedimentary rocks to reconstruct past environments.

In the case of primary production, the isotopic composition of oxygen in the form of sulfate in ancient salt deposits allows for such estimates to be made.

In our study, we compiled all previous estimates of ancient primary production derived through the method above, as well as many others. The outcome of this productivity census was that we were able to estimate that 100 quintillion (or 100 billion billion) tons of carbon have been through primary production since the origin of life.

Big numbers like this are difficult to picture; 100 quintillion tons of carbon is about 100 times the amount of carbon contained within the Earth, a pretty impressive feat for Earth’s primary producers.

Primary Production

Today, primary production is mainly achieved by plants on land and marine micro-organisms such as algae and cyanobacteria. In the past, the proportion of these major contributors was very different; in the case of Earth’s earliest history, primary production was mainly conducted by an entirely different group of organisms that doesn’t rely on oxygenic photosynthesis to stay alive.

A combination of different techniques has been able to give a sense of when different primary producers were most active in Earth’s past. Examples of such techniques include identifying the oldest forests or using molecular fossils called biomarkers.

In our study, we used this information to explore what organisms have contributed the most to Earth’s historical primary production. We found that despite being late on the scene, land plants have likely contributed the most. However, it is also very plausible that cyanobacteria contributed the most.

Filamentous cyanobacteria from a tidal pond at Little Sippewissett salt marsh, Falmouth, Mass. Image Credit: Argonne National Laboratory, CC BY-NC-SA Total Life

By determining how much primary production has ever occurred, and by identifying what organisms have been responsible for it, we were also able to estimate how much life has ever been on Earth.

Today, one may be able to approximate how many humans exist based on how much food is consumed. Similarly, we were able to calibrate a ratio of primary production to how many cells exist in the modern environment.

Despite the large variability in the number of cells per organism and the sizes of different cells, such complications become secondary since single-celled microbes dominate global cell populations. In the end, we were able to estimate that about 1030 (10 noninillion) cells exist today, and between 1039 (a duodecillion) and 1040 cells have ever existed on Earth.

How Much Life Will Earth Ever Have?

Save for the ability to move Earth into the orbit of a younger star, the lifetime of Earth’s biosphere is limited. This morbid fact is a consequence of our star’s life cycle. Since its birth, the sun has slowly been getting brighter over the past four and half billion years as hydrogen has been converted to helium in its core.

Far in the future, about two billion years from now, all of the biogeochemical fail-safes that keep Earth habitable will be pushed past their limits. First, land plants will die off, and then eventually the oceans will boil, and the Earth will return to a largely lifeless rocky planet as it was in its infancy.

But until then, how much life will Earth house over its entire habitable lifetime? Projecting our current levels of primary productivity forward, we estimated that about 1040 cells will ever occupy the Earth.

A planetary system 100 light-years away in the constellation Dorado is home to the first Earth-size habitable-zone planet, discovered by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. Image Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth as an Exoplanet

Only a few decades ago, exoplanets (planets orbiting other stars) were just a hypothesis. Now we are able to not only detect them, but describe many aspects of thousands of far off worlds around distant stars.

But how does Earth compare to these bodies? In our new study, we have taken a birds eye view of life on Earth and have put forward Earth as a benchmark to compare other planets.

What I find truly interesting, however, is what could have happened in Earth’s past to produce a radically different trajectory and therefore a radically different amount of life that has been able to call Earth home. For example, what if oxygenic photosynthesis never took hold, or what if endosymbiosis never happened?

Answers to such questions are what will drive my laboratory at Carleton University over the coming years.

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Image Credit: Mihály Köles / Unsplash 

Kategorie: Transhumanismus

AI Can Design Totally New Proteins From Scratch—It’s Time to Talk Biosecurity

Singularity HUB - 29 Leden, 2024 - 23:08

Two decades ago, engineering designer proteins was a dream.

Now, thanks to AI, custom proteins are a dime a dozen. Made-to-order proteins often have specific shapes or components that give them abilities new to nature. From longer-lasting drugs and protein-based vaccines, to greener biofuels and plastic-eating proteins, the field is rapidly becoming a transformative technology.

Custom protein design depends on deep learning techniques. With large language models—the AI behind OpenAI’s blockbuster ChatGPT—dreaming up millions of structures beyond human imagination, the library of bioactive designer proteins is set to rapidly expand.

“It’s hugely empowering,” Dr. Neil King at the University of Washington recently told Nature. “Things that were impossible a year and a half ago—now you just do it.”

Yet with great power comes great responsibility. As newly designed proteins increasingly gain traction for use in medicine and bioengineering, scientists are now wondering: What happens if these technologies are used for nefarious purposes?

A recent essay in Science highlights the need for biosecurity for designer proteins. Similar to ongoing conversations about AI safety, the authors say it’s time to consider biosecurity risks and policies so custom proteins don’t go rogue.

The essay is penned by two experts in the field. One, Dr. David Baker, the director of the Institute for Protein Design at the University of Washington, led the development of RoseTTAFold—an algorithm that cracked the half-decade problem of decoding protein structure from its amino acid sequences alone. The other, Dr. George Church at Harvard Medical School, is a pioneer in genetic engineering and synthetic biology.

They suggest synthetic proteins need barcodes embedded into each new protein’s genetic sequence. If any of the designer proteins becomes a threat—say, potentially triggering a dangerous outbreak—its barcode would make it easy to trace back to its origin.

The system basically provides “an audit trail,” the duo write.

Worlds Collide

Designer proteins are inextricably tied to AI. So are potential biosecurity policies.

Over a decade ago, Baker’s lab used software to design and build a protein dubbed Top7. Proteins are made of building blocks called amino acids, each of which is encoded inside our DNA. Like beads on a string, amino acids are then twirled and wrinkled into specific 3D shapes, which often further mesh into sophisticated architectures that support the protein’s function.

Top7 couldn’t “talk” to natural cell components—it didn’t have any biological effects. But even then, the team concluded that designing new proteins makes it possible to explore “the large regions of the protein universe not yet observed in nature.”

Enter AI. Multiple strategies recently took off to design new proteins at supersonic speeds compared to traditional lab work.

One is structure-based AI similar to image-generating tools like DALL-E. These AI systems are trained on noisy data and learn to remove the noise to find realistic protein structures. Called diffusion models, they gradually learn protein structures that are compatible with biology.

Another strategy relies on large language models. Like ChatGPT, the algorithms rapidly find connections between protein “words” and distill these connections into a sort of biological grammar. The protein strands these models generate are likely to fold into structures the body can decipher. One example is ProtGPT2, which can engineer active proteins with shapes that could lead to new properties.

Digital to Physical

These AI protein-design programs are raising alarm bells. Proteins are the building blocks of life—changes could dramatically alter how cells respond to drugs, viruses, or other pathogens.

Last year, governments around the world announced plans to oversee AI safety. The technology wasn’t positioned as a threat. Instead, the legislators cautiously fleshed out policies that ensure research follows privacy laws and bolsters the economy, public health, and national defense. Leading the charge, the European Union agreed on the AI Act to limit the technology in certain domains.

Synthetic proteins weren’t directly called out in the regulations. That’s great news for making designer proteins, which could be kneecapped by overly restrictive regulation, write Baker and Church. However, new AI legislation is in the works, with the United Nation’s advisory body on AI set to share guidelines on international regulation in the middle of this year.

Because the AI systems used to make designer proteins are highly specialized, they may still fly under regulatory radars—if the field unites in a global effort to self-regulate.

At the 2023 AI Safety Summit, which did discuss AI-enabled protein design, experts agreed documenting each new protein’s underlying DNA is key. Like their natural counterparts, designer proteins are also built from genetic code. Logging all synthetic DNA sequences in a database could make it easier to spot red flags for potentially harmful designs—for example, if a new protein has structures similar to known pathogenic ones.

Biosecurity doesn’t squash data sharing. Collaboration is critical for science, but the authors acknowledge it’s still necessary to protect trade secrets. And like in AI, some designer proteins may be potentially useful but too dangerous to share openly.

One way around this conundrum is to directly add safety measures to the process of synthesis itself. For example, the authors suggest adding a barcode—made of random DNA letters—to each new genetic sequence. To build the protein, a synthesis machine searches its DNA sequence, and only when it finds the code will it begin to build the protein.

In other words, the original designers of the protein can choose who to share the synthesis with—or whether to share it at all—while still being able to describe their results in publications.

A barcode strategy that ties making new proteins to a synthesis machine would also amp up security and deter bad actors, making it difficult to recreate potentially dangerous products.

“If a new biological threat emerges anywhere in the world, the associated DNA sequences could be traced to their origins,” the authors wrote.

It will be a tough road. Designer protein safety will depend on global support from scientists, research institutions, and governments, the authors write. However, there have been previous successes. Global groups have established safety and sharing guidelines in other controversial fields, such as stem cell research, genetic engineering, brain implants, and AI. Although not always followed—CRISPR babies are a notorious example—for the most part these international guidelines have helped move cutting-edge research forward in a safe and equitable manner.

To Baker and Church, open discussions about biosecurity will not slow the field. Rather, it can rally different sectors and engage public discussion so custom protein design can further thrive.

Image Credit: University of Washington

Kategorie: Transhumanismus

[PDF] Data Science market Research Report 2020: size, share, opportunities, and forecast 2030

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 07:52

The Data Science Market includes a wide range of products and services, including data analytics software, data visualization tools, machine learning …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

How the first chatbot predicted the dangers of AI more than 50 years ago – Vox

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 07:14

… how will our escalating relationship with artificial intelligences … artificial intelligence, morality, and the biggest threats to society.


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Defence orders machine learning research from Uni SA and Deakin – InnovationAus.com

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 07:07

The Department of Defence is tipping $1.7 million into two university research projects to develop a machine learning algorithm for wearable …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

One of the biggest autonomous transportation tests is operating deep underwater – CNBC

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 06:58

China recently completed construction on the Zhu Hai Yun, an unmanned ship made to transport drones and AUVs that utilizes artificial intelligence …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Top 10 best AI tools – TechStory

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 06:57

An open-source deep learning framework called Apache MXNet creates and trains neural networks. Although the Apache Software Foundation currently owns …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Data Book podcast: Ajay Khanna, Tellius CEO, talks about ‘decision intelligence‘

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 06:39

In the latest episode, Ajay Khanna explains how healthcare organizations can use artificial intelligence to gain new insights into their business.


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Data Book podcast: Ajay Khanna, Tellius CEO, talks about ‘decision intelligence‘

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 06:39

Khanna talks about machine learning and artificial intelligence, and its potential to help healthcare organizations gain new insights into their …


Link to Full Article: Read Here

Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Europe’s AI weaknesses could matter less in generative world, says Insight Partners – Sifted

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 06:22

… use of data — which is much stricter in Europe, making it harder to train machine learning models on lots of information than in the States.


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Elon Musk wants AI devs to build ‘anti-woke’ ChatGPT bot • The Register

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 06:19

… it – is key to improving the performance of machine learning models, … to use artificial intelligence," both nationally and internationally, …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Artificial Intelligence for Evaluation of Retinal Vasculopathy in Facioscapulohumeral … – MDPI

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 06:17

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a slowly progressive muscular dystrophy with a wide range of manifestations including retinal …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

AI and microscopy may revolutionize study of cells, molecule behavior | Laser Focus World

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 06:08

“AI has become increasingly used to analyze images obtained from digital microscopy, following the deep-learning revolution,” says Jesús Pineda, …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Monetizing the Math: AI Strategies that Boost ROI for Enterprise Investments – Spiceworks

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 06:06

Business leaders are drawn to Artificial Intelligence to generate new revenue, save money, expand infrastructure to serve customers, and establish …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Targeted Reminders Increase Prescriptions for High-Intensity Statins | DAIC

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 05:42

Overall, the study, which is among the largest to date to use machine learning-generated reminders to influence clinicians' prescribing practices, …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

UTRGV Baseball Blanks Houston, 1-0 – YouTube

Home AI - 6 Březen, 2023 - 05:35

LangChain Demo + Q&A with Harrison Chase. Full Stack Deep Learning. Full Stack Deep Learning. •. •. 2.4K views 12 days ago …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus
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