Viry a Červi

Oh Smeg! Hacked white goods maker resurfaces after system shutdown

The Register - Anti-Virus - 18 Září, 2018 - 14:41
'No reason to believe' customer deets compromised

The Brit limb of unfortunately named and reassuringly expensive domestic appliance maker Smeg is up on its feet again after being hacked.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

C'mon, biz: Give white hats a chance to tell you how screwed you are

The Register - Anti-Virus - 18 Září, 2018 - 13:05
... before black hats prove it

There have never been more white-hat researchers hunting for vulnerabilities on internet-facing systems and yet barely any organisations provide a way for them to report the issues they find.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

New trends in the world of IoT threats

Kaspersky Securelist - 18 Září, 2018 - 12:00

Cybercriminals’ interest in IoT devices continues to grow: in H1 2018 we picked up three times as many malware samples attacking smart devices as in the whole of 2017. And in 2017 there were ten times more than in 2016. That doesn’t bode well for the years ahead.

We decided to study what attack vectors are deployed by cybercriminals to infect smart devices, what malware is loaded into the system, and what it means for device owners and victims of freshly armed botnets.

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Number of malware samples for IoT devices in Kaspersky Lab’s collection, 2016-2018. (download)

One of the most popular attack and infection vectors against devices remains cracking Telnet passwords. In Q2 2018, there were three times as many such attacks against our honeypots than all other types combined.

service % of attacks Telnet 75.40% SSH 11.59% other 13.01%

When it came to downloading malware onto IoT devices, cybercriminals’ preferred option was one of the Mirai family (20.9%).

# downloaded malware % of attacks 1 Backdoor.Linux.Mirai.c 15.97% 2 Trojan-Downloader.Linux.Hajime.a 5.89% 3 Trojan-Downloader.Linux.NyaDrop.b 3.34% 4 Backdoor.Linux.Mirai.b 2.72% 5 Backdoor.Linux.Mirai.ba 1.94% 6 Trojan-Downloader.Shell.Agent.p 0.38% 7 Trojan-Downloader.Shell.Agent.as 0.27% 8 Backdoor.Linux.Mirai.n 0.27% 9 Backdoor.Linux.Gafgyt.ba 0.24% 10 Backdoor.Linux.Gafgyt.af 0.20%

Top 10 malware downloaded onto infected IoT device following a successful Telnet password crack

And here are the Top 10 countries from which our traps were hit by Telnet password attacks:

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Geographical distribution of the number of infected devices, Q2 2018. (download)

As we see, in Q2 2018 the leader by number of unique IP addresses from which Telnet password attacks originated was Brazil (23%). Second place went to China (17%). Russia in our list took 4th place (7%). Overall for the period January 1 – July 2018, our Telnet honeypot registered more than 12 million attacks from 86,560 unique IP addresses, and malware was downloaded from 27,693 unique IP addresses.

Since some smart device owners change the default Telnet password to one that is more complex, and many gadgets don’t support this protocol at all, cybercriminals are constantly on the lookout for new ways of infection. This is stimulated by the high competition between virus writers, which has led to password bruteforce attacks becoming less effective: in the event of a successful crack, the device password is changed and access to Telnet is blocked.

An example of the use of “alternative technology” is the Reaper botnet, whose assets at end-2017 numbered about 2 million IoT devices. Instead of bruteforcing Telnet passwords, this botnet exploited known software vulnerabilities:

Advantages of this distribution method over password cracking:

  • Infection occurs much faster
  • It is much harder to patch a software vulnerability than change a password or disable/block the service

Although this method is more difficult to implement, it found favor with many virus writers, and it wasn’t long before new Trojans exploiting known vulnerabilities in smart device software started appearing.

New attacks, old malware

To see which vulnerabilities are targeted by malware, we analyzed data on attempts to connect to various ports on our traps. This is the picture that emerged for Q2 2018:

Service Port % of attacks Attack vector Malware families Telnet 23, 2323 82.26% Bruteforce Mirai, Gafgyt SSH 22 11.51% Bruteforce Mirai, Gafgyt Samba 445 2.78% EternalBlue, EternalRed, CVE-2018-7445 – tr-069 7547 0.77% RCE in TR-069 implementation Mirai, Hajime HTTP 80 0.76% Attempts to exploit vulnerabilities in a web server or crack an admin console password – winbox (RouterOS) 8291 0.71% Used for RouterOS (MikroTik) authentication and WinBox-based attacks Hajime Mikrotik http 8080 0.23% RCE in MikroTik RouterOS < 6.38.5 Chimay-Red Hajime MSSQL 1433 0.21% Execution of arbitrary code for certain versions (2000, 2005, 2008); changing administrator password; data theft – GoAhead httpd 81 0.16% RCE in GoAhead IP cameras Persirai, Gafgyt Mikrotik http 8081 0.15% Chimay-Red Hajime Etherium JSON-RPC 8545 0.15% Authorization bypass (CVE-2017-12113)RDP 3389 0.12% Bruteforce – XionMai uc-httpd 8000 0.09% Buffer overflow (CVE-2018-10088) in XionMai uc-httpd 1.0.0 (some Chinese-made devices) Satori MySQL 3306 0.08% Execution of arbitrary code for certain versions (2000, 2005, 2008); changing administrator password; data theft –

The vast majority of attacks still come from Telnet and SSH password bruteforcing. The third most common are attacks against the SMB service, which provides remote access to files. We haven’t seen IoT malware attacking this service yet. However, some versions of it contain serious known vulnerabilities such as EternalBlue (Windows) and EternalRed (Linux), which were used, for instance, to distribute the infamous Trojan ransomware WannaCry and the Monero cryptocurrency miner EternalMiner.

Here’s the breakdown of infected IoT devices that attacked our honeypots in Q2 2018:

Device % of infected devices MikroTik 37.23% TP-Link 9.07% SonicWall 3.74% AV tech 3.17% Vigor 3.15% Ubiquiti 2.80% D-Link 2.49% Cisco 1.40% AirTies 1.25% Cyberoam 1.13% HikVision 1.11% ZTE 0.88% Miele 0.68% Unknown DVR 31.91%

As can be seen, MikroTik devices running under RouterOS are way out in front. The reason appears to be the Chimay-Red vulnerability. What’s interesting is that our honeypot attackers included 33 Miele dishwashers (0.68% of the total number of attacks). Most likely they were infected through the known (since March 2017) CVE-2017-7240 vulnerability in PST10 WebServer, which is used in their firmware.

Port 7547

Attacks against remote device management (TR-069 specification) on port 7547 are highly common. According to Shodan, there are more than 40 million devices in the world with this port open. And that’s despite the vulnerability recently causing the infection of a million Deutsche Telekom routers, not to mention helping to spread the Mirai and Hajime malware families.

Another type of attack exploits the Chimay-Red vulnerability in MikroTik routers running under RouterOS versions below 6.38.4. In March 2018, it played an active part in distributing Hajime.

IP cameras

IP cameras are also on the cybercriminal radar. In March 2017, several major vulnerabilities were detected in the software of GoAhead devices, and a month after information about it was published, there appeared new versions of the Gafgyt and Persirai Trojans exploiting these vulnerabilities. Just one week after these malicious programs were actively distributed, the number of infected devices climbed to 57,000.

On June 8, 2018, a proof-of-concept was published for the CVE-2018-10088 vulnerability in the XionMai uc-httpd web server, used in some Chinese-made smart devices (for example, KKMoon DVRs). The next day, the number of logged attempts to locate devices using this web server more than tripled. The culprit for this spike in activity was the Satori Trojan, known for previously attacking GPON routers.

New malware and threats to end users DDoS attacks

As before, the primary purpose of IoT malware deployment is to perpetrate DDoS attacks. Infected smart devices become part of a botnet that attacks a specific address on command, depriving the host of the ability to correctly handle requests from real users. Such attacks are still deployed by Trojans from the Mirai family and its clones, in particular, Hajime.

This is perhaps the least harmful scenario for the end user. The worst (and very unlikely) thing that can happen to the owner of the infected device is being blocked by their ISP. And the device can often by “cured” with a simple reboot.

Cryptocurrency mining

Another type of payload is linked to cryptocurrencies. For instance, IoT malware can install a miner on an infected device. But given the low processing power of smart devices, the feasibility of such attacks remains in doubt, even despite their potentially large number.

A more devious and doable method of getting a couple of cryptocoins was invented by the creators of the Satori Trojan. Here, the victim IoT device acts as a kind of key that opens access to a high-performance PC:

  • At the first stage, the attackers try to infect as many routers as possible using known vulnerabilities, in particular:
    • CVE-2014-8361 – RCE in the miniigd SOAP service in Realtek SDK
    • CVE 2017-17215 – RCE in the firmware of Huawei HG532 routers
    • CVE-2018-10561, CVE-2018-10562 – authorization bypass and execution of arbitrary commands on Dasan GPON routers
    • CVE-2018-10088 – buffer overflow in XiongMai uc-httpd 1.0.0 used in the firmware of some routers and other smart devices made by some Chinese manufacturers
  • Using compromised routers and the CVE-2018-1000049 vulnerability in the Claymore Etherium miner remote management tool, they substitute the wallet address for their own.
Data theft

The VPNFilter Trojan, detected in May 2018, pursues other goals, above all intercepting infected device traffic, extracting important data from it (user names, passwords, etc.), and sending it to the cybercriminals’ server. Here are the main features of VPNFilter:

  • Modular architecture. The malware creators can fit it out with new functions on the fly. For instance, in early June 2018 a new module was detected able to inject javascript code into intercepted web pages.
  • Reboot resistant. The Trojan writes itself to the standard Linux crontab job scheduler, and can also modify the configuration settings in the non-volatile memory (NVRAM) of the device.
  • Uses TOR for communication with C&C.
  • Able to self-destruct and disable the device. On receiving the command, the Trojan deletes itself, overwrites the critical part of the firmware with garbage data, and then reboots the device.

The Trojan’s distribution method is still unknown: its code contains no self-propagation mechanisms. However, we are inclined to believe that it exploits known vulnerabilities in device software for infection purposes.

The very first VPNFilter report spoke of around 500,000 infected devices. Since then, even more have appeared, and the list of manufacturers of vulnerable gadgets has expanded considerably. As of mid-June, it included the following brands:

  • ASUS
  • D-Link
  • Huawei
  • Linksys
  • MikroTik
  • Netgear
  • QNAP
  • TP-Link
  • Ubiquiti
  • Upvel
  • ZTE

The situation is made worse by the fact that these manufacturers’ devices are used not only in corporate networks, but often as home routers.

Conclusion

Smart devices are on the rise, with some forecasts suggesting that by 2020 their number will exceed the world’s population several times over. Yet manufacturers still don’t prioritize security: there are no reminders to change the default password during initial setup or notifications about the release of new firmware versions, and the updating process itself can be complex for the average user. This makes IoT devices a prime target for cybercriminals. Easier to infect than PCs, they often play an important role in the home infrastructure: some manage Internet traffic, others shoot video footage, still others control domestic devices (for example, air conditioning).

Malware for smart devices is increasing not only in quantity, but also quality. More and more exploits are being weaponized by cybercriminals, and infected devices are used to steal personal data and mine cryptocurrencies, on top of traditional DDoS attacks.

Here are some simple tips to help minimize the risk of smart device infection:

  • Don’t give access to the device from an external network unless absolutely necessary
  • Periodic rebooting will help get rid of malware already installed (although in most cases the risk of reinfection will remain)
  • Regularly check for new firmware versions and update the device
  • Use complex passwords at least 8 characters long, including upper and lower-case letters, numerals, and special characters
  • Change the factory passwords at initial setup (even if the device does not prompt you to do so)
  • Close/block unused ports, if there is such an option. For example, if you don’t connect to the router via Telnet (port TCP:23), it’s a good idea to disable it so as to close off a potential loophole to intruders.

State Department scores an F on 2FA security

Sophos Naked Security - 18 Září, 2018 - 11:47
Senators have discovered that the State Department is breaking the law by not using multi-factor authentication in its emails.

TV Licensing admits: We directed 25,000 people to send their bank details in the clear

The Register - Anti-Virus - 18 Září, 2018 - 11:47
Finally said yes to HTTPS

The UK's TV Licensing agency has admitted that 25,000 viewers were induced into sending their bank details over an insecure connection.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

VB2018 preview: Wipers in the wild

Virus Bulletin News - 18 Září, 2018 - 11:29
Today we preview the VB2018 paper by Saher Naumaan (BAE Systems Applied Intelligence) on the use of wipers in APT attacks.

Read more
Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Just 13 – no, er, make that 3,200 punters hit in Oz's Perth Mint hack

The Register - Anti-Virus - 18 Září, 2018 - 02:37
Unnamed third-party provider spaffed customer data

A computer security breach at Perth Mint first thought to have affected just 13 customers turned out to be more widespread – with more than 3,000 punters now screwed over by hackers.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Perth Mint leaks 13 accounts in data breach. No, make that 3,200

The Register - Anti-Virus - 18 Září, 2018 - 02:37
Unnamed third-party provider spaffed customer data

A data breach at Perth Mint first thought to have affected 13 customers turned out to be more widespread, with more than 3,000 customers breached.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Zero-Day Bug Allows Hackers to Access CCTV Surveillance Cameras

VirusList.com - 17 Září, 2018 - 23:13
Firmware used in up to 800,000 CCTV cameras open to attack thanks to buffer overflow zero-day bug.
Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Facebook Now Offers Bounties For Access Token Exposure

VirusList.com - 17 Září, 2018 - 19:43
The newly expanded Facebook bug bounty program sniffs out access token exposure flaws.
Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Check out this link! It's not like it'll crash your iPhone or anything (Hint: Of course it will)

The Register - Anti-Virus - 17 Září, 2018 - 19:36
A few lines of code that Apple's browser simply can't handle

Apple iPhones, iPads, and Mac computers that stray onto websites with malicious CSS code, while using Safari, can crash or fall over – due to a flaw in the web browser.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Old WordPress Plugin Being Exploited in RCE Attacks

VirusList.com - 17 Září, 2018 - 19:19
Old instances of the popular WordPress Duplicator Plugin are leaving sites open to remote code execution attacks.
Kategorie: Viry a Červi

CSS-Based Attack Causes iOS, macOS Devices to Crash

VirusList.com - 17 Září, 2018 - 17:20
The attack stems from a glitch in WebKit, an HTML layout browser engine in Apple’s Safari browser.
Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Vote now! Which web browser do you trust the most?

Sophos Naked Security - 17 Září, 2018 - 15:41
Your web browser goes with you everywhere on the web. But how much do you trust it?

Brit airport pulls flight info system offline after attack by 'online crims'

The Register - Anti-Virus - 17 Září, 2018 - 14:28
No flight delays at Bristol base, miraculously*

Bristol Airport deliberately yanked its flight screens offline for two days over the weekend in response to a cyberattack.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Deepfake pics and videos set off Facebook’s fake news detector

Sophos Naked Security - 17 Září, 2018 - 14:08
The social network is expanding its effort to stamp out fake news.

On the hook! Phishing trip nets “Barbara” 5 years and whopping fine

Sophos Naked Security - 17 Září, 2018 - 13:41
The romance and business email compromise scammer pled guilty to fraud amounting to $25m.

Facebook’s robot coders step into the future of programming

Sophos Naked Security - 17 Září, 2018 - 13:14
Like a good junior programmer, Facebook's AI is cutting its teeth with a bit of bug fixing.

Who's hacking into UK unis? Spies, research-nickers... or rival gamers living in res hall?

The Register - Anti-Virus - 17 Září, 2018 - 12:20
Report fingers students and staff for academic cyber-attacks

Who's hacking into university systems? Here's a clue from the UK higher education tech crew at Jisc: the attacks drop dramatically during summer break.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Monday review – the hot 25 stories of the week

Sophos Naked Security - 17 Září, 2018 - 11:01
From the hidden camera found in an AirBnb room and the smart TVs now admitting to viewers they spied on them to Google Chrome creating passwords for you, and more!
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