Viry a Červi

IoT vendor Orvibo gives away treasure trove of user and device data

Sophos Naked Security - 3 Červenec, 2019 - 13:29
Researchers at web privacy review service vpnMentor discovered the data in an exposed ElasticSearch server online. It contains two billion items of log data from devices sold by Shenzen, China-based smart IoT device manufacturer Orvibo.

Georgia’s court system hit by ransomware

Sophos Naked Security - 3 Červenec, 2019 - 13:27
There's a hint that it might involve Ryuk ransomware. If so, it might be the fourth Ryuk attack against state and local agencies since May.

Russian 'Silence' hacking crew turns up the volume – with $3m-plus cyber-raid on bank's cash machines

The Register - Anti-Virus - 3 Červenec, 2019 - 13:10
Dutch Bangla falls victim to coordinated ATM scam

A prominent Russian hacker crew is seemingly expanding its reach – having just pulled off a multi-million dollar cyber-heist in Bangladesh, we're told.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Miami police body cam videos up for sale on the darkweb

Sophos Naked Security - 3 Červenec, 2019 - 12:43
Videos from Miami Police Department body cams were leaked and stored in unprotected, internet-facing databases, then sold on the darkweb.

Sodin ransomware exploits Windows vulnerability and processor architecture

Kaspersky Securelist - 3 Červenec, 2019 - 12:00

When Sodin (also known as Sodinokibi and REvil) appeared in the first half of 2019, it immediately caught our attention for distributing itself through an Oracle Weblogic vulnerability and carrying out attacks on MSP providers. In a detailed analysis, we discovered that it also exploits the CVE-2018-8453 vulnerability to elevate privileges in Windows (rare among ransomware), and uses legitimate processor functions to circumvent security solutions.

According to our statistics, most victims were located in the Asia-Pacific region: Taiwan, Hong Kong, and South Korea.

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Geographic spread of Sodin ransomware, April – June 2019

Technical description Vulnerability exploitation

To escalate privileges, Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Sodin uses a vulnerability in win32k.sys; attempts to exploit it were first detected by our proactive technologies (Automatic Exploit Prevention, AEP) in August last year. The vulnerability was assigned the number CVE-2018-8453. After the exploit is executed, the Trojan acquires the highest level of privileges.

Information about the process token after exploit execution

Exploit snippet for checking the window class

Depending on the processor architecture, one of two shellcode options contained in the Trojan body is run:

Procedure for selecting the appropriate shellcode option

Since the binary being analyzed is a 32-bit executable file, we are interested in how it manages to execute 64-bit code in its address space. The screenshot shows a shellcode snippet for executing 64-bit processor instructions:

Shellcode consisting of 32-bit and 64-bit instructions

In a 64-bit OS, the segment selector for 32-bit user mode code is 0x23, while the 64-bit segment selector is 0x33. This is confirmed by looking at the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) in the kernel debugger:

Part of the GDT in OS Windows 10 x64

The selector 0x23 points to the fourth segment descriptor (0x23 >> 3), and the selector 0x33 to the sixth (the null descriptor is not used). The Nl flag indicates that the segment uses 32-bit addressing, while the Lo flag specifies 64-bit. It is important that the base addresses of these segments are equal. At the time of shellcode execution, the selector 0x23 is located in the segment register cs, since the code is executed in a 32-bit address space. With this in mind, let’s take a look at the listing of the very start of the shellcode:

Saving the full address 0x23:0xC

After executing the command for RVA addresses 6 and 7, the long return address is stored at the top of the stack in the format selector:offset, and takes the form 0x23:0x0C. In the stack at offset 0x11, a DWORD is placed whose low-order word contains the selector 0x33 and whose high-order word encodes the instruction retf, the opcode of which is equal to 0xCB.

Saving the full address 0x33:0x1B to 64-bit code

Switching to 64-bit mode

The next instruction call (at the address RVA 0x16) performs a near intrasegment jump to this retf instruction (RVA 0x14), having sent the short return address (offset 0x1b) to the stack. As such, at the time of execution of the retf instruction, the top of the stack contains the address in the format selector:offset, where the selector equals 0x33 and the offset is 0x1b. After executing the retf command, the processor proceeds to execute the code at this address, but now in 64-bit mode.

64-bit shellcode

The return to 32-bit mode is performed at the very end of the shellcode.

Returning to 32-bit mode

The retf command makes a far intrasegment jump to the address 0x23:0x0C (it was placed in the instruction stack at the very start of the shellcode, at the RVA address 6-7). This technique of executing 64-bit code in a 32-bit process address space is called Heaven’s Gate, and was first described around ten years ago.

Trojan configuration

Stored in encrypted form in the body of each Sodin sample is a configuration block containing the settings and data required for the Trojan to work.

Decrypted Trojan configuration block

The Sodin configuration has the following fields:

Field Purpose pk distributor public key pid probably distributor id sub probably campaign id dbg debug build fast fast encryption mode (maximum 0x100000 bytes) wipe deletion of certain files and overwriting of their content with random bytes wfld names of directories in which the Trojan deletes files wht names of directories and files, and list of extensions not to be encrypted prc names of processes to be terminated dmn server addresses for sending statistics net sending infection statistics nbody ransom note template nname ransom note file name template exp use of exploit for privilege escalation img text for desktop wallpaper Cryptographic scheme

Sodin uses a hybrid scheme to encrypt victim files. The file contents are encrypted with the Salsa20 symmetric stream algorithm, and the keys for it with an elliptic curve asymmetric algorithm. Let’s take a closer look at the scheme.

Since some data is stored in the registry, this article uses the names given by the ransomware itself. For entities not in the registry, we use invented names.

Data saved by the Trojan in the registry

Key generation

The Sodin configuration block contains the pk field, which is saved in the registry under the name sub_key – this is the 32-byte public key of the Trojan distributor. The key is a point on the Curve25519 elliptic curve.

When launched, the Trojan generates a new pair of elliptic curve session keys; the public key of this pair is saved in the registry under the name pk_key, while the private key is encrypted using the ECIES algorithm with the sub_key key and stored in the registry under the name sk_key. The ECIES implementation in this case includes the Curve25519 elliptic curve, the SHA3-256 cryptographic hash, and the AES-256 block cipher in CFB mode. Other ECIES implementations have been encountered in Trojans before, for example, in SynAck targeted ransomware.

Curiously, the same private session key is also encrypted with another public key hardcoded into the body of the Trojan, regardless of the configuration. We will call it the public skeleton key. The encryption result is stored in the registry under the name 0_key. It turns out that someone who knows the private key corresponding to the public skeleton key is able to decrypt the victim’s files, even without the private key for sub_key. It seems like the Trojan developers built a loophole into the algorithm allowing them to decrypt files behind the distributors’ back.

Snippet of the procedure that generates key data and stores some of it in the registry

File encryption

During encryption of each file, a new pair of elliptic curve asymmetric keys is generated, which we will call file_pub and file_priv. Next, SHA3-256(ECDH(file_priv, pk_key)) is calculated, and the result is used as the symmetric key for encrypting file contents with the Salsa20 algorithm. The following information is also saved in the encrypted file:

Data stored in each encrypted file

In addition to the fields discussed above, there is also a nonce (random initialization 8 bytes for the Salsa20 cipher), file_pub_crc32 (checksum for file_pub), flag_fast (if set, only part of the data in the file is encrypted), zero_encr_by_salsa (null dword encrypted by the same Salsa20 key as the file contents – seemingly to check the correctness of the decryption).

The encrypted files receive a new arbitrary extension (the same for each infection case), the ransom note is saved next to them, and the malware-generated wallpaper is set on the desktop.

Cybercriminals demands

Fragment of the desktop wallpaper created by the ransomware

Network communication

If the corresponding flag is set in the configuration block, the Trojan sends information about the infected machine to its servers. The transmitted data is also encrypted with the ECIES algorithm using yet another hardcoded public key.

Part of the Sodin configuration responsible for network communication

Field Purpose ver Trojan version pid probably distributor id sub probably campaign id pk distributor public key uid infection id sk sk_key value (see description above) unm infected system username net machine name grp machine domain/workgroup lng system language bro whether language or layout is from the list (below) os OS version bit architecture dsk information about system drives ext extension of encrypted files

During the execution process, the Trojan checks the system language and available keyboard layouts:

If matches are detected in the list, the malware process terminates short of sending statistics.

MITRE ATT&CK techniques


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Patch Android! July 2019 update fixes 9 critical flaws

Sophos Naked Security - 3 Červenec, 2019 - 11:50
Depending on when users receive it, this week’s Android’s July patch update will fix 33 security vulnerabilities, including 9 marked critical, and 24 marked high.

Here's a great idea: Why don't we hardcode the same private key into all our smart home hubs?

The Register - Anti-Virus - 3 Červenec, 2019 - 09:07
Another day, another appalling Internet of S**t security flaw

Smart home company Zipato hardcoded the same private SSH key into every one of its hubs, leaving its system open to hacking, researchers revealed this week.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

$30/month email upstart Superhuman brought low with a blast of privacy Kryptonite

The Register - Anti-Virus - 3 Červenec, 2019 - 08:04
Tech exec challenges startup over default tracking

Superhuman, an email startup betting people who deal with a lot of messages will pay $30 a month for a more organized inbox, has come under fire for not providing privacy by default.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Security Camera Firm Arlo Zaps High-Severity Bugs - 2 Červenec, 2019 - 23:23
Bugs in Arlo Technologies’ equipment allow a local attacker to take control of Alro wireless home video security cameras.
Kategorie: Viry a Červi

IBM Patches Critical, High-Severity Flaws in Spectrum Protect - 2 Červenec, 2019 - 22:28
IBM has disclosed multiple critical and high-severity flaws across an array of products, the most severe of which exist in its IBM Spectrum Protect tool.
Kategorie: Viry a Červi

We are shocked to learn oppressive authoritarian surveillance state China injects spyware into foreigners' smartphones

The Register - Anti-Virus - 2 Červenec, 2019 - 21:55
Border cops accused of loading tourists' mobiles up with snoop app in Muslim area

Authorities in a tumultuous region of China are ordering tourists and other visitors to install spyware on their smartphones, it is claimed.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Google July Android Security Bulletin Fixes 3 Critical RCE Bugs - 2 Červenec, 2019 - 19:50
Google fixed several critical and high-severity vulnerabilities in its Android operating system.
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Mac Malware Pushed via Google Search Results, Masquerades as Flash Installer - 2 Červenec, 2019 - 17:22
A new malware is targeting Macs with new tactics to sniff out antivirus and virtual machines.
Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Scary Granny zombie game slurps credentials, spawns phishing attack

Sophos Naked Security - 2 Červenec, 2019 - 13:12
Halloween came a little early for some Android users this year after a horror-themed computer game was found stealing their account credentials and displaying potentially malicious ads.

Dating app Jack’d fined $240K for leaving private photos up for a year

Sophos Naked Security - 2 Červenec, 2019 - 12:33
The company behind the gay dating app left users' private photos online for a year in spite of knowing about the security bugs.

Medtronic rushes to replace insulin pumps after flaws found

Sophos Naked Security - 2 Červenec, 2019 - 12:01
Medtronic is immediately recalling of all MiniMed 508 & Paradigm insulin pumps after researchers uncovered serious security flaws.

Relatives’ DNA in geneology database leads to murder conviction

Sophos Naked Security - 2 Červenec, 2019 - 11:39
Privacy advocates may question the use of genealogy data in forensics, but defense attorneys in this case did not.

July is here – and so are the latest Android security fixes. Plenty of critical updates for all

The Register - Anti-Virus - 2 Červenec, 2019 - 01:20
Patch, punch, it's the first of the month

Google today posted a fresh round of Android security fixes.…

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Cop a load of this: 1TB of police body camera videos found lounging around public databases

The Register - Anti-Virus - 2 Červenec, 2019 - 00:18
Miscreants grabbed sensitive footage belonging to officers in Miami, elsewhere, it is feared

In yet another example of absent security controls, troves of police body camera footage were left open to the world for anyone to siphon off, according to an infosec biz.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Facebook staff sarin for a bad day: Suspected chemical weapon parcel sent to Silicon Valley HQ

The Register - Anti-Virus - 1 Červenec, 2019 - 23:27
Package triggered test equipment, buildings evacuated, no one exposed

Updated  Staff were evacuated today at Facebook's Silicon Valley headquarters after a package believed to contain the chemical weapon sarin was delivered to the antisocial network.…

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